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title="Swedish Silent Film"
If early silent cinema was a cinema of attractions,the
Author Kenneth Macgowan praises the silent film The Avenging Conscience as a photoplay, his view being that Giriffith's film uses a narrative method of storystructure, action being secondary to character development, if not often interpolated in between scenes, his noting that it was seldom that Griffith used intertitles with lines of dialougue during a scene. Among the narrative films of Griffith filmed in 1909 was the silent film The Sealed Room.
The camera could also portray the character more fully by adding the movement
Among the literary adaptations filmed by Vitagraph in 1909 was Launcelot and Elaine.
Belazs mentions that the mood of a scene can be established by the
And yet, if the present author has anything to add to what has been written in appreciation of Scandinavian film and its use of landscape to add depth to the development of character by creating relationships between the background and the protagonist of any given film's plotline, within that is that within classical cinema and its chronological ordering of events, it is still often spatio-temporal relationships that are developed. The viewer often acknowledging the effect that an object within the film might have upon the character, an object that is either stationary or in movement, poeticly in movement as a waterfall would be, the structuring of space within the film not only clarifies plot action, but, within the framed image, included in the spatial continuity within the visual structure of the film, establishes a relation of objects that appear onscreen to the space that is offscreen. Spatial relations became narrative. Character movement, camera movement and shot structure create a scenographic space which within the gaze of the actress is observed through an ideal of femininity, a unity of space constructed that links shots, often by forming spaces that are contiguous within the scene and creating images that are poeticly presented as being contiguous; subjectivity is structured within the discourse of the film and these subjectivities are presented to the viewer as being within a larger context within early Silent Scandinavian films.
In addition to using close ups that could isolate the actor from what particular background that happenned to surround him or her, D. W. Griffith would establish the relationship between character and
In title="Svenska Biografteatern-Kristianstad"
Film historians have noted that Kristianstad, Sweden was home to another film, The Man Who Takes Care of the Villian (Han som clara boven), filmed in 1907. Produced by Franz G. Wiberg, the film has never been released theatrically.
Svensk Kinematograf was the production company that under N. E. Sterner had filmed six of the earliest films photographed in Scandinavia- Robert Olsson had photographed Pictures of Laplanders (Lappbilder), Herring Fishing in Bohuslan (Sillfiske i Bohuslan), Lika mot lika starring Tollie Zellman and
Another of Sweden's earliest photographers was Walfrid Bergström, who was behind the camera between 1907-1911 in Stockholm for Apollo productions. In 1907 Bergström filmed Den glada ankan, one of the three films produced by Albin Roosval starring Carl Barklind and Emma Meissner and Konung Oscar II's likbegangelse. Between 1907 and 1911, Bergstrrom would photographed Skilda tiders danser with Emma Meissner and Rosa Grunberg in 1909 and Ryska sallskapsdanser in 1911. During 1908, Svenska Biografteatern produced two short films with the actress Inga Berentz, Sjomansdansen, photographed by Walfrid Bergstrom, and I kladloge och pascen, photographed by Otto Bokman.
Charles Magnusson, who came to the
Like Charles Magnusson, Frans Lundberg produced short silent films in Sweden, the first two filmed in 1910. Stora Biografteatern, in Malmo, Sweden, photographed To Save a Son (Massosens offer), directed by Alfred Lind and starring Agnes Nyrup-Christensen, and The People of Varmland (Varmlandingarna), directed by Ebba Lindkvist, photographed by Ernst Dittmer and starring Agda Malmberg, Astrid Nilsson and Ester Selander. The following year Ernesr Dittmer would write and direct the film Rannsakningsdomaren, starring Gerda Malmberg and Ebba Bergman.
In Malmo Sweden, for Stora Biografteatern, Otto Hoy during 1911 wrote and directed the film The Spy (Spionen), starring Paul
Carl Engdahl later appeared in the 1926 film
href="http://www.strindbergsintimateater.se/startsidan.htm"> src="strindberg.jpg" align=right>Forsyth Hardy notes that the early Swedish films of 1911 were films in which "the camera remained static and the action was artificially concentrated into a small area in front of it." Not quite apart from this and very
Thanhouser was also producing adaptations of literature for the screen and in 1911 filmed three plays by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen: Pillars of Society (Samfundets stotter), Lady from the Sea (Fruen fra havet, Theodore Marston) and A Doll's House (Et dukkehjem). Lubin that year filmed a version of Ibsen's Sins of the Father (Gengangere).
Although a theory of a cinema of attractions depends less upon the use
In regard to the camera being authorial, Raymond Spottiswoode writes,
In the United States, with Edison (The Road of Anthracite,
One particular silent film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled (1900), considerably
William Rothman writes that only one sixth of the film before 1907 had
Heath sees early cinema as space articulated in tableau, filmed
D. W. Griffith uses offscreen space in his structuring of shots during the 1910 film What Daisy Said, directed for Biograph. Most of the shots to the film are exterior longshots with two or more characters with a static camera. Starring with Gertrude Robinson, Mary Pickford enters the frame from the far left of the screen and exits near to the end of the shot from that same side. In a subsequent shot she enters from the right side of the frame, quickly climbs a set of outdoor stairs, exits from the left and then reenters the frame from the left to begin the next shot, her dancing from one side of the screen to the other and the camera cutting almost on her action of entering and exiting to begin each shot. She runs in fron of the camera from the offscreen space that frames the exterior and then runs back to the same side of the screen to exit the frame in a brief shot. She later slowly descends the outdoor stairs during the film to depict despair. Her movement as a unifying image, the moving subject, serves to link the adjacent shots, her movement within the frame carried into each subsequent shot so that the spatial relationships with the frame of each individual shot are seen with the shot to shot relationships of camera position and reposition, character movement linking the image to create narrative continuity as the viewer is brought to the edges of the rectangular frame. The significant action of the scene bringing an involvement with with the protagonist, the causality in the storyline of the film is constructed without the frequent use of explanatory intertitles.
It is not suprising that Kenneth Macgowan writing as early as 1965 in
In regard to film preservation and the search for silent film, in April
Swedish film historian Forsyth Hardy can be quoted as having written, "The Danes claim to have made the first dramtic film, in 1903". Denmark had had its own early
In Denmark Viggo Larsen had played Sherlock Holmes to Holger-Madsen's Raffles in both Sherlock Holmes Risks His Life (Sherlock Holmes i livsfare, 1908) and Sherlock Holmes Two. Both films were photographed by Axel Sorensen. Einar Zangenberg would play the armchair detective in Larsen's Sherlock Holmes Three. Larsen would also for the Nordisk Films Kompagni direct the Holmes' films The Singer's Diamonds (Sangerindens diamanter, 1908) starring Holger Madsen, The Grey Lady Den Graa Dame, 1909) and Cab Number 519 (Drokes 519), starring August Blom with Larsen as the consulting detective. Viggo Larsen would soon thereafter travel to Germany, where he directed and starred with Wanda Truemann in Arsene Lupin Against Sherlock Holmes (Arsene Lupin Contra Sherlock Holmes, 1910) before directing the even more successful Sherlock Holmes contra Professor Moryarty (1911). Alwin Nuess, a Danish actor who had starred as Sherlock Holmes in One Million Dollar Bond (Millionobilgationen/The Stolen Legacy) and in The Hound of the Baskervilles (1914, Rudolf Meinert), would also go to Germany. In Denmark actor Otto Lagoni would portray Sherlock Holmes for Nordisk Films Kompagni, starring with Danish silent film actress Ingeborg Rasmussen in Den Sorte A Haand (Mordet i Bakerstreet) and with Poul Welander in Den Forklaedete Barnepige (The Bogus Governess). Otto Lagoni also during 1911 appeared under the direction of William Augustinus in the Sherlock Holmes film Den Sorte Haette. Einar Zangenberg would in 1911 appear as Holmes in the Danish silent filmHotelthieves (Hotelmysterierne.)
In addition to Nordisk Films, during 1910 the Regina Kunst Kompagni briefly produced films in Denmark, notably the first three films in which actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan had, as Clara Weith, starred, Elskovsleg, Djaevelsonaten, and Ett Gensyn, in which she starred with actresses Annegrette Antonsen and Ellen Aggerholm. Director Axel Strom directed Clara Weith in the film Dorian Grays Portraet, in which she starred with Valdemar Psilander as well as his having directed Johanne Dinesen in the film Den doe Rotte. Danish silent film actress Emilie Sannon also starred on screen for the Regina Kunst Kompagni, her having starred in the film Doden.
The versatility of Asta Nielsen, directed by her husband Urban Gad, was especially shown from film to film. The Abyss begins with a shot of the actress Asta Nielsen as Magda and her boarding a train as though it were a whistle stop. It continues with exterior longshots, untill the two characters are seen at an outdoor coffee table. There is a cut to an interior where she is seen in full shot opening a letter, the camera distance well behing the Vitagraph nine foot line, particularly for an interior filmed in 1910. Seated, the next shot shows her at a closer angle, filmed higher than her as she is reading the letter. It then cuts to a train station and then a series exterior full shots of her arriving in the country. The scene then shifts to an outdoor circus and an exterior full shot during which she dances. The storyline becomes dramatic, or sensational in its being melodramatic, where she flees with the circus, much like in the Greta Garbo film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox. There is in the film a near panning shot following characters as a horse drawn carriage parks near the exterior of a building, the camera then cutting to the interior where she is recieving guests.
The Black Dream (Dem Sorte Drom), filmed the folling year is remarkable in Gad's use of silhouette. Asta Nielsen appears in the film with actor Valdemar Psilander. In Denmark, Urban Gad also directed actresses Emilie Sannom and Ellen Kornbeck, among the films Gad directed for Nordisk Films in 1911 two having been When Passion Binds Honesty (Dyrekobt Glimmer), in which both actresses appeared with Johannes Poulsen and Elna From, and An Aviator's Generosity (Den Store Flyver, 3 reels), which had starred Christel Holck. Also that year Gad directed the films Spansk Elsker, and Sydens Born in Denmark. It was also that year that Urban Gad and Asta Nielsen would travel to Germany to film for Deutsche Bioscop. Asta Nielsen appeared on screen under Urban Gad's direction with the cinematographer Karl Freund behind the camera that year in the films The Moth (Nachtfalter) and The Strange Bird (Der fremde Vogel). Asta Nieslen also continued in 1911 to appear under Gad's direction in the films The Traitoress (Die Verraterin), Hot Blood (Heisses Blut), In Those Large Eye Glances (In dem grossen Augenblick).
The first href="http://www.sea.fi/english">Finnish narrative film,
Peter Lykke-Seest, who had founded the first
Aside from this was the consideration that once films had been begun to
Technique would become the ordering of images within an arrangement of
That Sjöström the actor would later be shown in both long shot and
Victor Sjöström and Mauritz Stiller had met in Stockholm the day before
That year Paul Garbagni directed both Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller with actress Astrid Endgelbrecht in the film Springtime of
Eric Malmberg that year directed the films Oceanbreakers and Stolen Happiness (Branningar eller Stulen
In Malmo, Sweden, for the Danish film producer Frans Lundberg and Stora Biografteatern, Paul Welander in 1912 contributed the films The Pace
1912 was also the year that Hjalmar Söderberg, often considered the nearest contemporary to Strindberg, published the novel
In the United States, Mary
The year of 1912 was to mark the first film with Lillian and Dorothy
During the Biograph silent film short The Musketeers of Pig Alley (1912) Griffith frames Lillian Gish at a table, only half of her visible in the frameline untill she leaves the table, and then cuts on the action of her leaving the frame as she crosses the screen from one interior into the adjacent one, her crossing the screen from left to right in both the shots Griffith had edited together, toward the far left side of the screen in the first, toward the middle of the screen in the next. Vertical space allows a disclosure in the film, one allowed by the moving figure as Gish skirts from one room to the next, her moving into the unexpected space the audience may or may not have already seen where there is action that has been simultaneously transpiring within the temporality of the film. In a film from the same year in which Gish only briefly appears, A Burgler's Dilema, Griffith again cuts on action often, particularly during entrances, but interpolates very brief exterior shots in between scenes, increasing their frequency and interspersing within the scene as the film continues and the pace of the action hastens, or complicates, with the plotline.
If it is that spatial compostition can be included as a part of the grammar, or syntax, of film, within that is pictorial continuity and the use of visual tropes. A spatial relation is established through screen direction as figure movment becomes motion within the frame and action that the camera can cut on before continuing it in the subsequent frame, the camera cutting within the scene for effect. The spatial movement of the character is continued from shot to shot, linking each of them through a directional continuity, and yet, within the scene, the contour of objects, their proximity to the camera and their arrangement in front of the camera as its various positions cause it to become more authorial, is varied with each contrast between the adjacent shots within the temporality of the scene. As an inscription of its own being authorial, the camera could participate in narrative drama as an unseen presence, particularly through its own repostioning, unobtrusive if omnipresent in its guiding the spectator toward the action of the scene. Establishing the relation between spectator and content, the actress as an element of the film's pictorial compostion, in turn, could, as an aesthetic object, often substitute for the gaze of the female spectator, particularly as a motif for femininity, quite possibly more noticebly during cut in close ups where, while photographed with the space between her and the camera only represented by her near filling the area of the frame, spectator interest would recess into brief plateau before the narrative would climb into an increase of identification untill the quiet, slow stillness of the close up that would come next.
Having directed The New Cook, The Indian Massacre and
During 1912 the
Danish silent film direct Wilhelm Gluckstadt began directing in 1912 with the film The Blue Blood (Det blaa Blod), scripted by Stellan Rye and starring Elina Jorgen Jensen, Grethe Ditlevsen and Gudrun Houlberg. That year Wilhelm Gluckstadt also directed the exceptionally beautiful Danish film actress Eimilie Sannom in the films Konfetti, De to brodre and Zigeunerorkestret. Exceptionally pretty Danish film actress Ebba Thomsen first appeared on the screen in 1912 under the direction of Robert Dinesen in two films, Den glade Lojtnant and Lystrallen. Danish film director Aage Brandt during 1912 would direct Vera Brechling in A Death Warning (Dodsvarlet)
Danish silent film director August Blom in 1912 filmed with the photographer Johanne Ankerstjerne for Nordisk Film, notably with the actress Clara Weith Pontoppidan, whom he directed in the film Faithful Unto Death (Et Hjerte af Guld) and had directed a year earlier in the film In the Prime of Life (Ekspedtricen), photographed by Axel Sorensen. Blom that year also for Nordisk Film directed Robert Dinesen in the films Stolen Treaty (Secret Treaty/ Den Magt Trede and The Black Chancellor (Den Sorte Kansler) with Valdemar Psilander, Ebba Thomsen and Jenny Roelsgaard, The Black Chancellor having been a film in which Danish silent film scriptwriter Christian Schroder appeared on screen as an actor. That year August Blom also directed A High Stake (Hjaerternes Kamp).
Danish silent film director Carl Th. Dreyer had in fact begun as a writer, contributing the screenplay to the film The Brewer's Daughter (Bryggerens dattar, 1912), directed by Rasmus Ottesen and starring Emanuel Gregers. He was to write every screenplay that he was to direct. Tom Milne, who begins his volume on Dreyer with an account of his having seen the director at a screening of Gertrude, quotes him as having said, " I know that I am not a poet. I know that I am not a great playwright. That is why I prefer to collaborate with a true poet and with a true playwright." Dreyer continued in 1913 by writing the screenplays to The Baloon Explosion (Balloneskplosionen), directed by Kay van de Aa Kuhle, Chatollets hemmelighed, directed by Hjalmar Davidsen, Hans og Grethe, directed by Sofus Wolder, and The War Correspondent (Krigskorrespondent), directed by William Gluckstadt and starring Emanuel Gregers,Grethe Ditlevsen, Ellen Tegner and Emilie Sannom. In 1914, Dreyer scripted Down With Your Waepons (Ned Med Vaabnene), directed by Holger Madsen and photographed by Marius Clausen.
Danish film director Benjamin Christensen, however by 1913 had begun directing with his first film Sealed Orders (Det hemmelinghstulde X), a melodrama that had included a use of montage in its editing, followed by Blind Justice (Haevnansnat, 1915), both films having starred the actress Karen Caspersen. The two films by Christensen were of the only three produced by the Dansk Biograf Compagni. Benjamin Christensen had starred as an actor with actress Karen Caspersen and Ellen Malmberg during 1913 in Skaebnebaeltet, directed by Danish silent film director Sven Rindom, his also that year having starred in the films Children of the Stage (Scenens Born, Bjorn Bjornson), starring Bodil Ipsen and Aud Egede-Nissen and Lille Klaus Og Store Klaus (Elith Reumert). Children of the Stage was produced by Dania Biofilm Kompagni.
For Ingmar Bergman,the first notable Swedish film is Ingeborg Holm from
Much like it being that the films of Bergman "concern interior
Interestingly enough, one of the best explanations of classical narrative construction, narrative form which is often based on there being a casual relationship between events that are connected spatially during the film brought about by its characters, comes from the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman. In his autobiography Images, Ingmar Bergman relates that it was Stina Bergman, then head of the script department, who had asked for him at Svensk Filmindustri. She and her husband Hjalmar Bergman had in fact met with Victor Sjöström while in the United States, where Stina Bergman had acquired the technique of scriptwriting. "This technique was extremely obvious, almost rigid; the audience must never have the slightest doubt where they were in the story. Nor could there be any doubt about who was who, and the transitions between various points of the story were to be treated with care. High points should be allotted and placed at specific places in the script and culmination had to be saved for the end. Dialougue had to be kept short." Author David Bordwell often approximates this description of continuity in the feature film. Bergman continues in the autobiography to write that many of the remarks that Stina Bergman made at that time were treasured by him and that Hjalmar Bergman was his idol.
The films that Victor Sjöström had made in 1913 were scheduled to be
George af Klercker in 1913 directed the film The Scandal (Skandalen) for Svenska Biografteatern, it having starred actresses Anna Norrie and Selma Wiklund af Klerker and having been photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. That year Klercker also appeared with Selma Wiklund af Klercker as an actor in the film With Weapon in Hand (Med vapen i hand), which he directed. Carl Barklind directed his first film that year, The Suicide
Danish silent film director Vilhelm Gluckstadt in 1913 brought the film The Black Music Hall (Den sorte Variete), starring Gudrun Houlberg to the screen. Forest Holger-Madsen, who along with his cameraman Marius Clausen is particularly noted for continuing the lighting effects that were singular to early Danish silent film, that year directed The Mechanical Saw, During The Plaugue and The White Woman/The Ghost of the White Lady (Den Hvide Dame), photographed by Clausen and starring Rita Sacchetto.
In 1913, Griffith directed Blanche Sweet in the films Love in an
Betty Nansen, before her later appearing on the the silver screen in the United States, made her first two films in Demark in 1913, Bristet Lykke (A Paradise Lost, August Blom) and Prinsesse Elena (The Princess's Dilemma, Holger-Madsen). While in the United States, Betty Nansen appeared in the films of producer William Fox. Among them, four were directed by J. Gordon Edwards in 1915: A Woman's Resurrection, The Song of Hate, scripted by Rex Ingram, Should a Mother Tell, also written by Rex Ingram, and Anna Karenina (five reels), scripted by Clara Beranger.
Lon Chaney appeared in his first films in 1913, among those being
Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström both had continued to direct in
The latter, Victor Sjöström, continued directing with The Miracle (Miraklet) with Clara Pontoppidan and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. In regard to the film, based on a story by Zola, Bengt Forslund views as the foreground to the film Monastery of Sendomir and Love's Crucible with the caution that Sjöström may not truly have had an affinity with making "cloistered romances" much in the way his making The Divine Woman may have been pedestrian, significantly the author adds, "It is clearly the first time that Sjöström consciously made use of a particular stretch of natural landscape as a background to the drama." Victor Sjöström also that year continued with Landshovdingens
After his having starred in the films of Victor Sjöström, Gunnar Tolnaes, who in 1915 appeared in the films One Out of the Many (En av de manga) with Greta Almroth, Lilly Jacobsson and Lili Bech, and When Artists Love (Nar konstnarer alska), returned to Denmark from Sweden to film Doktor X under the direction of Robert Dinesen.
At Svenska Biograteatern in 1914 Axel Breidahl directed King Solomon's Judgement (Salomos drom) with Lili Zeidner
Danish Silent film director Holger-Madsen often filmed with the cinematographer Marius Clausen. Betty Nansen in 1914 starred in his film For the Sake of A Man (Under Skaebnens Hjul), which, also starring Maja Bjerre-Lind, Christel Holch and Ingeborg Jensen, was among those films he photographed with Clausen. In 1914, Danish silent film director Vilhelm Gluckstadt directed the film Youthful Sin (Ungdomssynd), starring Sigrid Neiiendam.
Swedish Film director Edmond Hansen in 1915 directed the film Revenge (Hamnden ar ljuv), his also having that year directed Edith Erastoff in two films for Svenska Biografteatern, A Hero in Spite of Himself (Hjalte mot sin vilja), which was not only the first film photographed by Swedish cameraman Carl Gustaf Florin but also the first film scripted by Swedish screenwriter Oscar Hemberg, and The First Prize (Hosta vinsten), photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Arvid Endglin wrote and directed the film An Error (En
Apparently George af Klercker directed every film but one that was produced by Hasselblads Fotografiska AB from its first film in 1915 untill it merged early in 1918 to become part of Filmindustri AB Skandia early in 1918, and that film was directed by Manne Gothson (Perils of the Big City/Storstadsfaror), who had been Klercker's assistant director, Gothson having had been being the assistant director to the 1915 film In the King's Uniform (I kronas klader). George af Klerker in 1915 contributed the film The Rose of Thistle Island (Rosen pa Tistelon),
Besides the photographers Julius and Henrik Jaenzon, another of
It was in 1915 that Frances Marion began writing photoplays, her being
Greta Garbo director Clarence Brown during 1915-1917 was the assistant director and editor at Universal for director Maurice Tourneur. Notably, in 1925 he directed The Goosewoman with Louise Dresser and Constance Bennet for Universal/Jewel. Greta Garbo cameraman William Daniels had been an assistant cameraman at Triangle before becoming chief cameraman at Universal.
1914-1915 was also the brief period during which Dansk Filmfabrik, in Aarhus, Denmark produced the films of director Gunnar Helsengreen, including I dodens Brudeslor (1914), starring Gerda Ring, Jenny Roelsgaard and Elisabeth Stub, Sexton Blake (1915), Menneskeskaebner (1915) and Elskovs Tornevej (1915), also starring Jenny Roelsgaard, Gerda Ring and Elisabeth Stub.
Writing about Victor Sjöström and quoted by Charlotte de Silva for the
Appearing on the screen as as an actor as well, Edmond Hansen at Svenska Biografteatern during 1916 wrote and directed the films The Consequences of Jealousy (Svartsjukans foljder) with Eric
Among the films directed by George af Klerker during 1916 was Aktiebolaget Halsans gava, the first film photographed by cinematographer Gustav A Gustafson and the first film in which actress Tekla Sjöblom was to appear. Also starring in the film are Mary Johnson and Anna Löfström. Tekla Sjoblom began as an actress in 1916, her having appeared in Georg af Klercker's film The Gift of Health (Aktieboolaget Halsans gava), photographed by Carl Gustav Florin. That year the Swedish director Georg af
In 1916, F. Magnussen directed Victor
Captain Grogg's Wonderful Journey (Kapten Grogg's underbara resa) in 1916 introduced to Swedish audiences a series of films showcasing the animation of director Victor Bergdahl that would continue untill 1922. One of two films directed by Bergdahl that would use animation to narrate circus stories, Cirkus Fjollinski, also appeared that year.
As part of its Women and the Silent Screen series held June 11-13, 2008, the Cinematecket in Stockholm will be screening a the 1916 Danish film The Queen of the Stock Exchange (Die Borsenkonigin), written and directed by Edmund Edel. The film is from the Nederlands Filmmuseum. Paired with the film will be the trailer to the lost film The Sunken (Die Gesunkenen, Rudolf Walther-Fein, 1925) also starring Asta Nielsen, a film in which she costarred with the actress Olga Tschechova.
August Blom's film The Spider's Prey (Rovedderkoppen, 1916), starring Rita Sacchetto, had been written by Carl Th. Dreyer and the screenwriter Sven Elvestad. That year Dreyer also had co-scripted, with Viggo Carling, the film Evelyn the Beautiful (Den Skonne Evelyn), directed by Anders Wilhelm Sandberg, photographed by Einar Olsen and also starring Rita Sacchetto.
In the United States, Lillian Gish during appeared in the films Sold for
Triangle Film Corporation had been formed in late 1915 to combine the
At Keystone in 1914 Mack Sennett had directed the first films of
In 1912, while Stiller was beginning to film comedy in Sweden and Mack
The Sunbeam, the first film written by June Mathis appeared on
In directing The Girl From Marsh Croft (Tosen fran
Greta Garbo is quoted by Sven Broman as having said, "I know that he
J. Gordon Edwards in 1917 would direct Cleopatra (ten reels) and
In addition to directing and starring with Gerda Thome-Mattsson and
Konrad Tollroth in 1917 directed and starred with Lili Bech in
1917 was to mark the first publication written by the Swedish author title="Swedish Authors"
In Denmark, in 1917, Gunnar Tolnaes and Lilly Jacobsson were teamed for the first of two films, The Maharaja's Favorite Wife (Mahatadjahen's Yndlings Hustru), directed by Robert Dinesen and written by Sven Gade. Director August Blom was to direct both Tolnaes and Jacobsson in the 1919 film The Maharaja's Favorite Wife 2 (Mahatadjahen's Yndling Hustru 2). Carl Th. Dyeyer wrote the screenplays to two films directed by Holger-Madsen in 1917, Fangre Nr. 113 and Hans vigrige Kone.
In 1918, Thomas Ince left the Triangle Motion Picture to form Thomas H. Ince Studios. One silent short that had belonged to Blackhawk Films, was a tour of the studios filmed by Hunt Stromberg between 1920-1922. An intertitle from Blackhawk Films reads, "Insisting upon strict adherence to complete shootingscripts, Ince supervised the direction and editing of each picture and thus managed to give all the appearance of having been directed by Thomas H. Ince, regardless of who did actually direct." The short, sent to exhibitors, shows footage of Ince viewing the rushes from the previous afternoon.
After Hearts of the World (1918, twelve reels), Griffith
During Orphans of the Storm, Griffith reverses the screen
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Victor Sjostrom and John Brunius to Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo to Edvin Adolphson and Sigurd Wallen
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