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via scottlord by lord02141@yahoo.com on 5/6/09
Greta Garbo






Greta Garbo Spray, Sweden

Swedish Silent FilmSwedish Film


Greta Garbo banner designed for Scott Lord by Ulrich in Berlin, Germany; color tint added by Amy in Southern California.

den har sida i Svensk
Greta Garbo







And yet, before Garbo,it seems Swedish cinema was established by a
director who later came to the United States to direct Lillian Gish in
screenplays by Frances Marion, Victor
Sjöström.


Victor Sjostrom

In her book Lulu in Hollywood, Brooks compares him to Gish by writing
that he "in his direction, shared her art of escaping time and place.
Seastrom and Gish were made for each other." Gish, after having remarked
upon her having seen Stroke at Midnight (The Phantom Carriage,
Korkarlen
, 1921, six reels), in her book The Movies, Mr. Griffith and
Me had written, "It seemed to me he had Mr. Griffith's sensitivity to
atmosphere.". Of the films in which he had directed Gish, Kenneth MacGowan
wrote that they were films to which "he brought some of the lyricism that
had distinguished his work in Sweden.", whereas, interestingly, Norma
Shearer, who had starred under Victor Sjostrom's direction in Tower of
Lies
(1926, seven reels) with William Haines and Lon Chaney, had said
that Sjöström "was more concerned with the moods he was creating than the
shadings he should have injected into my performance."



In addition to his is also having had
been being on the sets of Name The Man (1924, eight reels) with Mae
Busch and Conrad Nagel, Confessions of a Queen (1925, seven reels)
with Alice Terry and Lewis Stone, Masks of the Devil (1928, eight
reels) with Eva Berne and John Gilbert, Victor Sjostrom filmed what would be his ninth film
before returning to Sweden, A Lady to Love (1930, ten reels) with
Vilma Banky as both a silent film and as a sound film.

 



During 1924, Carl Sandberg reviewed Victor Sjostrom's film Name the Man, his remarking upon Sjostrom's use of lighting, which, whether or not it may have been a use of realism or naturalism, seemed underplayed to Sandberg and based upon the enviornment rather than made more elaborate or as being artificial. "He was an actor once, rated as Sweden's best, and his voice leads his actors into slow, certain moods."


Begnt Forslund writes, "His final films in the United States had not been successful. However much they valued him at MGM, they were not exactly eager for him to return." Although photographed by Swedish cinematographer Julius Jaenzon, The Markurell Family in Wadkoping
(Markurells I Wadkoping) was filmed in Sweden after the departure of Charles Magnusson from Svenska Filmindustri. It having been also filmed as both a silent and sound film, Bengt Forslund sees the film as one that Sjostrom had directed mostly out of friendship, its script having had been being based on a novel written by Swedish playwright Hjalmar Bergman first considered by Svenska Filmindustri shortly after its publication in 1919. In his autobiography, Images, Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman remembers being asked for by Stina Bergman in regard to her commisioning him to write for the script department at Svensk Filmindustri, his including his giving her a compliment on the experience she aquired in Hollywood, one in which he outlines the technique of Hollywood filmaking and "classical narrative" scriptwriting. "When Victor Sjostrom had moved to Hollwood in 1923, the Bergmans followed."



The Scarlet Letter (1926) directed by Victor Sjöström and starring
Lillian Gish was remade in 1934 starring Collen Moore.



To mark the
birthday of Lillian Gish, Sjöström's film was screened Oct 14, 2005 at
the Pordenone Silent Film Festival. It was also featured at the San
Francisco Silent Film Festival, July 10, 2005. In a volume that was written when William Everson was only a research assistant, one silent
film author not only remarked upon Victor Sjöström's use of "austere
theme and background" in the film, but noted that "the photography was
affected by this Scandinavian approach. Hendrik Sartov's camerawork is
magnificent throughout", his noticing that the cinematographer had filmed
Lillian Gish differently than he had under the direction of D. W.
Griffith. Sartov used tinted light during its filming and panchromatic stock, which had been used to film Gish in the 1925 film La Boheme. Bengt Forslund compares Sjöström's direction of He Who Gets Slapped with his direction of The Scarlet Letter, the former being 'more personal, and also more cinematically exciting" while the latter can be regognized as being a return to the type of film that Sjöström had made in Sweden, to which he briefly returned after making the film. Not incidently, it was the Swedish actor Gösta Ekman who had portrayed the Lon Chaney role in Han som far orfilarna on stage in 1926 in Stockholm, at the Oscarteatern.

Victor Sjostrom
Victor Sjostrom-Swedish Film DirectorsGreta Garbo-Victor Sjostrom

Greta Garbo-Silent Film Silent Film-Victor Sjostrom


Garbo had asked that Sjöström direct, as had Gish. Of Garbo he had
said, "She thinks above her eyes. Certain great actors posses what seems
to be an uncanny ability to register thought- Lon Chaney was one- Garbo is
another. They seem to literally absorb impressions...Garbo is more
sensitive to emotions than film is to light, (and) you see it through her
eyes." The Divine Woman (En gudomlig kvinna 1928, eight
reels) was photographed by Oliver Marsh, who had also photographed
Camille, using panchromatic film. The earlier films of Greta Garbo had been filmed in orthochromatic film. Based on the play Starlight by Gladys Unger, who had also
written an early revision of the screenplay, the final rewrite of the
screenplay was to be given to Dorothy Farnum, the titles to be written by John Colton.
The editor of the film was Conrad Nevrig.


The fragment left of Greta Garbo in The Divine Woman showcases the interior editing of director Victor Sjöström. Garbo and Lars Hanson are filmed behind a dining table in a stationary medium fullshot, a brief insert shot of a clock included during the sequence. They are then filmed in a series of alternating closeups while seated at the table. On Garbo's later delivering the line of dialougue, "I'd give up the whole world for you.", Sjöström dissolves to another insert shot of a clock, using the object, an the motion provide by an animate object, to punctuate the events driven by the characters.


Greta Garbo-Victor Sjostrom

John Bainbridge wrote that the film had been "well recieved", that
Sjöström spoke "glowingly" of Garbo's work in the film and also of
Stiller's having had an interest in directing it. For Garbo, in the role
of Marianne, it is not a choice between Lucien (Lars Hanson) and Legrande
(Lowell Sherman). Legrande, her mother's lover, brings to acclaim on the
stage when Lucien has to return to his conscription. Despondent, she
leaves the theater, but then Lucien finds her again. He takes her to South
America where they can begin again. (One rewrite of the continuity script
has the character's name as being 'Marah', who is introduced by a dolly
shot, her apparently coming to Paris from the province of Auverone.) Also
in the film are Polly Moran, Dorothy Cumming and John Mack Brown. When
reviewed in the United States, it was deemed that, "Mr. Seastrom revels in
sharp contrasts...When the actress tries to end her life because of her
love for Lucien, Mr. Seastrom introduces the idea of having a group of
sympathizers, some with a bouquet of flowers, filling a doorway while
Marianne is unconscious on her bed." Bengt Forslund, in his book Victor
Sjostrom
: His Life and Work, writes, "One recognizes that the story
could not be helped, but clearly Sjöström was trying to do something
different with Garbo, to make her a softer, more easy-going woman than she
had appeared in her earlier films." The overture of the film's music had
been selections from The Student Prince. The film had taken six weeks to
shoot. Fritiof Billquist quotes Sjöström as having said, "She never once
came to the set without having prepared herself thoroughly down to the
last detail, and if one gave her directions, she accepted them glady, even
though she was a big star even then."


Greta Garbo-Victor Sjostrom Greta Garbo


Sjöström corresponded with Greta Garbo from Sweden, as did Alf Sjöberg,
before she returned in December 1928. It was there that she saw Two
Kings
(Tva Kongungar, 1925), which, directed by Elis Ellis and
photographed by Jaenzon, had starred her younger sister, Alva Gustafson.
It was also there that she had agreed to film The Painted Veil and
there where she had first read the script of Queen Christina at a time when, according to author Bary Paris, Gösta Ekman was in hope of sharing the Swedish stage with her in a theater run of Grand Hotel. Of the
off-screen romance of Greta Garbo with John Gilbert, Clarence
Brown, who had introduced the two to each other, had said, "After I
finished a scene with them I felt like an intruder. I'd have to walk away,
to let them finish what they were doing." In an e-mailed correspondence to the present author, Sheryl Stinchum of the John Gilbert Society wrote, "Gilbert and Garbo were a dynamic duo...The love they felt for each other off-screen was reflected on-screen-- especially in 'Flesh and the Devil'. They literally fell in love on the set." Clarence Brown also first introduced to film technique the pullback shot, a shot when the camera dollies back away from its subject, while filming Silent Film actress Vilma Banky in The Eagle at United Artists with cameraman George Barnes, it having become part of the grammar of film, used later by many directors including Brown. Writing about Greta Garbo, Richard Corliss quotes Brown as
also having related that he would "direct her very quietly" and never
"gave her directions above a whisper." In a later e-mailed correspondence with the present author, silent film webpage author Greta de Groat reiterated Ms Stinchum's enthusium in regard to Greta Garbo by writing, "She is fabulous, though, isn't she! I've always been a big fan."



Och ma vi harmed satta punkt for Greta Garbos Saga- tills vidare. Einar Nerman ends his article on Greta Garbo with an enthusiasm that may or may not seem seductive.

Greta Garbo




Greta Louisa
Gustafson
, or perhaps Keta or G.G from Sodermalm that as a young
actress had spoken with Agnes Lind, or still perhaps the more enigmactic
Garbo that would later sign her correspondence as "Gurra", was born at
South Maternity Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden September 18, 1905.


Swedish Film-Greta GarboA commemorative
postal stamp bearing Greta Garbo was issued by the United States
Postal Service on September 23, 2005; two stamps were issued by Sweden. Only a little older than Garbo, Karin Granberg, who appeared in films in Sweden between 1930-1937 while Greta Garbo was at MGM, was born on August 2, 1905, while Sigge Furst, who appeared in Swedish films from 1931 untill 1969, was born on November 3, 1905. Two Swedish Film directors were born in September of that year, a month after Greta Garbo, Ake Ohberg, who was born September 20, 1905, and Ragnar Falck, who was born September 23, 1905. Swedish Film director Arne Bornebusch was born December 10, 1905. Only slightly younger than Garbo, Greta Nissen appeared in two films in Denmark under the direction of Lau Lauritzen before her first film made in the United States, Lost: A Wife, scripted by Clara Beranger and directed by William C. deMille. Greta Nissen was born on January 30, 1906 in Oslo Norway. Swedish Film actress Karin Kavli was born on June 21, 1906. Thomas Gladysz of the Louise Brooks Society e-mailed a notice that Nov 14, 1906 was the one hundredth birthday of Louise Brooks and to coincide with the event, Ingmar Bergman biographer Peter Cowie will be publishing the volume, "Louise Brooks: Lulu Forever". If anything, on her birthday Greta
Garbo
left us again with a long, static dolly shot, her face
motionless in its symmetry, waiting for her eyes to mention something we
should already know, much like the dolly shot that concludes Queen
Christina
(1933), directed by Rouben Mamoulian, not a look of goodbye,
but an aloof, penetrating stare from the bow of a vessel that acknowledges
it may be headed into an unknown the mystery of which it may already be
familiar.



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via scottlord by lord02141@yahoo.com on 5/6/09











Spray, Sweden

Swedish Film Institutescottlord-Swedish Silent Film

All About Swedish Film banner designed for Scott Lord by Ulrich in Berlin, Germany; color tinted by Amy in Southern California


Greta Garbo



Swedish Film 1909-1917


In part one of the Swedish Silent Film The
Outlaw and His Wife
(Berg Ejvind och hans hustru, 1918) Victor Sjostrom
on screen portays a character that is introduced with an iris out, the
previous scene which included secondary characters having concluded with
an iris in; he is drinking from an Icelandic stream in medium close shot,
the camera then cutting to a wider angle, it photographing him from the
waist up to show more of the stream in the background. After a cut in,
Sjöström cuts back to the shot, but only briefly, to show that his
character is to the right of the screen, in profile, looking at what is
offscreen to the left of the screen. Almost on action, he then abruptly
cuts to a full shot in which the character has reversed the relation of
his look to the side of the frame, his then cutting to a longshot as his
character leaves the frame. He cuts to a vignette shot of his character
facing the opposite direction that he does in the scene, and then to
another accompanying a dialouge intertitle so that it is as though the
line of dialouge has been delivered in close shot.


Throughout the rest of part one Victor Sjostrom carries the story forward, it introducing the
woman he will marry in a sidelighted, near over the shoulder, near quarter
shot, it being that she hires him for a month and then later makes him
steward. While part two begins with establishing shots of the exterior,
the horizon line often parallel to the top of the frame line ( a wall is
later used to show a vertical division of frame as two lovers meet behind
it), there is no interruption of continuity between it and part three, the
two not linked by any camera device, but the scene is quickly moved to an
interior. In part three she asks him to marry her and he tries to decline
while declaring his love for her (Sjöström cuts back and forth between
their dialouge and a retrospective scene during which he uses iris in and
iris out to show ellipsis).


The rest of the film is of their journey together. In part four he cuts
from a three quarter full shot of his character facing the right of the
screen going towards her to embrace her to a shot of both of them in
medium shot, her in his arms while he is facing the left of the screen.
Rather than using suture between shot reverse shots, he holds the camera
on them during the dialouge and concludes it by cutting to a closer angle
of his character having lowered his body and putting his head on her
stomach. During the dialouge which beings part seven an expository
intertitle accompanies his interpolating a shot which would have been
included in a previous scene and the shot from part four of his being near
to her is repeated, their dialouge during while snowbound then
continuing.



Photographed by Julius Jaenzon, it is Victor Sjostrom's screenplay , co-written with Swedish screenwriter Sam Ask as the first script that Ask had written, and was adapted from a
novel by Johann Sigurjonssonn that had already been brought to the
theater. Sjöström had written four hundred letters to his co-star Edith
Erastoff, the woman he had married. About the film, Einar Lauritzen wrote,
"But Sjöström never let the drama of human relations get lost in the
grandeur of the scenery." Tom Milne sees the film as being an example of a
director articulating "the sense of space and liberty in the use of
landscape which was already one of the distinguishing marks of the Swedish
cinema."


Victor Sjostrom had performed the four act play quickly after it had been published; Eyvind of the Hills had been printed in Danish in 1911 and only later published in Icelandic. Sjostrom had performed the play in Goteborg that same year. The plawright Johan Sigurjonsson explains that it is built around its two principal characters by writing, "Halla's nature is moulded on a Danish woman's soul.", but oddly he adds something more thematic while dicussing the play by writing, "In my little garret in Copenhagen, I learned by my own experience the agony of lonliness." Sigurjonsson relates that it been his correspondence author Bjornstjerne Bjornson that had helped published his first play, Dr. Rung, in 1905. He followed in 1908 with the play The Hraun Farm (Bondinn a Hrauni). Before the screening of Victor Sjostrom's film The Outlaw and His Wife, Sigurjonsson also published the play The Wish (Onsket), which was printed in 1915.


Par Lagerkvist published the essay Modern Theater (Teater) in 1918, it
purporting, and possibly rightly so, that the theater of Ibsen lacked what
was needed for then modern audiences. 1919 saw the publication of Par
Lagerkvist's play The Secret of Heaven (Himlens hemlighet).
Agnes von Krusenstjerna that year published the volume Helenas fösta
karlek.


Bille August has recently filmed an adaptation of Lagerlof's Jerusalem-
for Victor Sjöström and AB Svenska Biograteatern it became The Sons of Ingmar
(Ingmarssonera,1918) starring Harriet Bosse and Tore Svennberg with
the director and Karin, Daughter of Ingmar (Karin
Ingmarsdotter
1920, six reels), starring Tora Teje, Harriet Bosse and
Bertil Malmstedt with the director, thier having been filmed by cinematographer Julius Jaenzon and the screenplays to both film's having had been being
Sjöström's; for Molander, Ingmar's Inheritance
(Ingmarsarvet, 1925) with Marta Hallden and Mona Martensson and
To the East (Till Osterland, 1926). Both star Lars Hanson and
co-starring Molander. It had been Mauritz Stiller that had visited Selma
Lagerlöf in Dalecarli to discuss the filming of adaptations to the novel.
Sjöström had in fact hoped to film Liljecrona's Home rather than
Jerusalem. Writing about The Sons of Ingmar, Bengt Forslund notes,
"The most striking change that Sjöström introduces in his screenplay is to
treat, daringly, the Kingdom of Heaven as a realistic setting...The
scenery provides comic relief without seeming ridiculous. " Shooting the
film mostly on location, "Sjöström developed dramatic moments that do not
have the same intensity in the book" (Forslund). Forslund concludes by
writing, "Otherwise, I still find The Sons of Ingmar less cinematic
than The Outlaw and His Wife, less personal in its narrative
technique." Of the actors in the film, he remarks, "Harriet Bosse seems a little miscast in the role of Brita, which certainly should have been played by an actress ten years younger."


While writing about the film Wild Strawberries, Jorn Donner notes that Ingmar Bergman's film is in part a tribute to Victor Sjostrom the director, "Many scenes have a tie-in with Victor Sjostrom's work. A smashed watch plays a part in Karin Ingmarsdotter."


Filmindustri Inc Scandia began in 1918, that year the company filming
the first film directed by John W. Brunius,
Puss and Boots, (Masterkattan i stovlar), starring Gösta
Ekman and Mary Johnson. The film was co-witten by John W. Brunius and Sam Ask. It was also the first film in which actress Anna Carlsten was to appear. The following year Skandia merged with Svenska Bio
to team Charles Magnusson with Nils Bouveng to run AB Svensk
Filmindustri.


Mary Johnson also that year appeared in the Swedish silent film Storstadsfaror, directed by Manne Göthson and photographed by Gustav A Gustafson. Appearing with her in the film were Agda Helin, Tekla Sjoblom and Lilly Cronwin.


In 1918, the first films to be directed by Sidney Franklin, who would
later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film Wild Orchids, appeared in theaters,
among them being Bride of Fear (five reels), The Safety
Curtain
(five reels) with Norma Talmadge, The Forbidden City
(five reels) and Her Only Way (six reels), both films also starring
Norma Talmadge. That year Fred Niblo, who would later direct Greta Garbo
in the silent film The Mysterious Lady as well as Norma Talmadge in Camille (1927, nine reels), also
began directing, his films having been The Marriage Ring, Fuss
and Feathers
(five reels), Happy Though Married (five reels) and When Do We
Eat?
. Director Paul Powell during 1918 teamed Rudolph Valentino and Marry Warren for the film All Night (five reels).


In 1919, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed His Lord's Will
(His Grace's Will, Hans nads testamente) from the writings
of Hjalmar Bergman. His Lord's Will (1940), starring Olof Sandborg,
Barbro Kollberg and Alf Kjellin and scripted by Stina Bergman was directed
by Per Lindberg. During 1919 the novel God's Orchid, written by Swedish playwright Hjalmar
Bergman, would be published, followed in 1921 by the novel Thy Rod and
Thy Staff and in 1930 by Jac the Clown.


Swedish Silent FilmAlso in 1919, the Swedish director Ivan Hedqvist directed The Downy
Girl
. Ett farligt frieri (1919), starring Lars Hanson, Gull Cronvall, Hilda Categren and actress Uno Henning in her first on screen appearance, was directed by the Swedish director Rune Carlsten for Filmindustri Scandia, as
was The Bomb (Bomben, Sunshine and Shadow), starring
Karin Molander and Gösta Ekman. They were the first two of five films directed by Rune Carlsten to be photographed by cinematographer Raoul Reynols. John W. Brunius that year directed the film The Girl of Solbakken (Synnove Solbakken),
based on the novel written by Bjornstjerne Bjornson in 1857, the assistant director with Brunius having been Einar Bruun. Starring Lars Hanson and
Karin Molander, it was the first film in which the actresses Ellen Dall, Ingrid Sandahl
and Solveig Hedengran would each appear. The film reunited Sam Ask with John W. Bruinus, their both having co-written the script, as with Masterkatten i stovlar. Tytti Soila, in
regard to the editing of the film writes, "The film's conflict of ideas is
condensed in a sequence where there is cross-cutting between a religious
revival meeting at Synnove's home and young people celebrating Midsummer
by dancing in a meadow." That year Brunius also directed the film Oh
Tommorow Night
(Ah, i morron kvall), photographed by Hugo
Edlund. Einar Bruun in 1919 directed the film Surrogatet, with
Karin Molander for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm. The People of Hemso (Hemsoborna, 1919) was
directed by Carl Barcklind, it starring Einar Hanson, Nils Ahren and Hilma
Barcklind, as was the film En un mans vag. Hemsoborna was also photographed by cinematographer Hugo Edlund. Danish Film director Robert Dinesen in 1919 filmed the first of two films in Sweden, Jefthas dottar, with Signe Kolthoff, the second having been Odets redskap with Astri Torsell and Clara Schonfeld filmed in 1922.


Griffith directed The Girl Who Stayed at Home ( 1919, six
reels), photographed by Bitzer and starring Robert Harron, Carol Dempster,
Richard Barthelmess and Clarine Seymour. He also directed Lillian Gish in
True Heart Susie (six reels) with Robert Harron and Kate Bruce. Sidney Franklin in 1919 would again direct Norma Talmadge, her starring in the six reel film The Heart Of Wetona.


Conrad Nagel appeared in his first films, The Lion and the Mouse
(Tom Terriss, five reels), Redhead and Little Women (H.
Knoles, six reels), with Dorothy Bernard, Isabel Lamon and Lillian Hall.
Theda Bara was to appear in A Woman There Was, directed by J.
Gordon Edwards. She wrote "How I became a Vampire" for the June 1919 issue
of Forum magazine and was interviewed by Olga Petrova for Shadowland
Magazine in 1920 and for Motion Picture Magazine in 1922, both instances
of one actor interviewing another.


The selcted poems of Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam were published
in 1919. The Swedish poet had published the volume Nya Dikterin in 1915.
He is the author of historical novel Karolinerna.


Sir Arne's Treasure (Herr Arne's pengar 1919, seven
reels), with Mary Johnson, co-scripted by Molander, continued Sjöström's
filming of the novels of Selma Lagerlöf, its director Mauritz Stiller. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Ingmar Bergman has said, "I think Stiller with his Erotikon and Herr
Arne's Treasure
is alot of fun. And his Atonement of Gosta
Berling
, too, is a fresh, powerful, vital film." There is an account
of Stiller having introduced Greta Garbo to Selma Lagerlöf and an account
of Lagerlöf having complimented her on her beauty and her "sorrowful
eyes". Where Selma Lagerlof and Mauritz Stiller had differred was on
adaptation; Stiller perhaps seeing film as more visual, or theatrical,
Gösta Werner having written that "Stiller later regretted preserving the
long winded intertitles copied from the novel" (Tytti Soila) while filming
Sir Arne's Treasure, or it may have having had been being that
Stiller, as a compliment to Lagerlöf, had begun searching for a connection
to the theater that both he and Gustav Molander had studied in Helsinki
and similarities within Scandanavian literature. Of the film, Robert Payne
writes, "he employed every trick known to cinema: close ups, dissolves,
masks, superimposed images, sudden changes of tempo- a slow dreamy pace
for the visionary scenes and an unbelieveably fast pace for the scenes of
fighting...The film was tinted, thus giving it a heightened sense of
reality." Author on Scandinavian Film Forsyth Hardy remarked upon the editing of the film by writing, "It also had a visual harmony, absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Wanda Rothgardt also appears in the film. About the adaptation of novel to film, Kwiatkowski, in Swedish Film Classics, writes, "Stiller and his scriptwriter Molander simplified the meandering plot of the story, making the narration more consistent and building up tension in a logical way justified by the development of events." An e-mailed newsletter from Kino video during April of 2006 announced the release in the United States of the Swedish Silent Film Sir Arne's Treasure on DVD.




Lars Hanson-Swedish Silent Film


The Song of the Scarlet Flower (Sangen om den eldroda
blomman
, 1919), was to star Lars Hanson and Edith Erastoff. The Song
of the Scarlet Flower
(1956) with Gunnel Lindblom and Anita Björk
was directed by Gustaf Molander. The tinting of the first film provides a
contrast between its individual scenes, moods and uses of nature as a
background, its narrative following a structure of seperate chapters.
Particularly interested in the interrelated components of each film being
part of the film in its entirety, David Bordwell writing with Kristin
Thompson, also regards the emotion of the spectator during any sequence of
a film as being related to the viewing of the film in its entirety;
seperate scenes that are tinted belong to the film in its entirety- the
film after it has been edited. Narrative and stylistic elements in film
form are often interrelated. Long before Bordwell, Raymond Spttiswoode had
written, "The film director is continually analysing his material into
sections, which, in a great variety of ways, can be altered to suit his
purpose. At the same time he is synthesizing these sections into larger
units which represent his attitude toward the world, and reveal the design
he finds displayed in it. The analysis is an analysis of structure; of the
filmic components which the director discerns in the natural world."


Lucy Fischer in fact remarks upon the narrative unity with Jacques
Feyder's The Kiss, noting that to view the film as an entirety, the
spectator must combine different events from seperate sequences,
connecting the plot events centered around Garbo's character. Oddly, she
later discusses the background to narrative as conveying the thematic, not
in as much as man's relationship to nature can depict the emotion inherent
within storyline, as often in the films of Stiller and Sjöström, but in
that the mise en scene of the silent films of Greta Garbo, in its being
dramatic, provides an embellishment of the narrative through its spatial
composition of the image- it being Garbo that is crossing the set and
sitting into the shot, it being a melodrama taking place within a world in
which she can be otherworldly. Raymond Spottiswoode, writing in 1933, as
well saw film as being comprised of its component parts. The sequence is
seen as a series of shots that taken as part of the film as a whole add to
its untiy. Spottiswoode describes there being implicational montage, where
the sequences are seen in their entirety, their then containing within
them content that has a relation to the film as a whole through
implication, a series of shots producing its effect, creating its
significance, in combination with other sequences in the film.



Swedish Silent Film Swedish Silent Film


Greta Garbo photographer William Daniels continued his early career as second camerman under the direction of Eric von Strohiem, one film having had been being Blind Husbands (eight reels, 1919), starring Fay Holderness and Francellia Billington, another having been the film The Devil's Passkey (1920, seven reels), starring Una Tevelyan, Mae Busch and Maud George. Although one of the best films of the decade, the silent Blind Husbands, was concerned with marriage and the marital, one actress that had made several marriage dramas had been Katherine MacDonald. Of those she had appeared in were The Beauty Market (Campbell, 1919, nine reels), The Woman Thou Gavest Me, The Notorious Miss Lisle (1920) and Passion's Playground (1920). To add to any new look at marriage that was taking place as Hollywood peered through the keyhole into a modernity of what was being shown of the bedroom, DeMille in 1919 directed Why Change Your Husband (six reels),
Male and Female (nine reels) with Lila Lee and For Better or
Worse
(seven reels), his having begun a series of films on marital
relations in 1918 with Old Wives for New (six reels), each film
scripted by Jeanie Macpherson. Macpherson, who had begun writing screenplays for DeMille with the 1915 film The Captive, starring Blanche Sweet, in 1920 continued with the director by scripting the film Something to Think About (seven reels), starring Gloria Swanson. Fred Niblo directed the film The Marriage
Ring
(five reels) in 1918. It has been offered that the films of
DeMille are not only erotic comedies but reflect the becoming a commodity
of matrimony and the reification of married life through the exchange
values employed within suture and the syntax of shot reverse shot, the
commodification of female sexuality within gendered spectatorship; within
a model of the new woman a female subjectivity is constructed that is a
result of consumerism. Whether or not the influence is direct, Einar
Lauritzen has attributed the success of Mauritz Stiller's film Erotikon (When We Are Married,
1920), starring Lars Hanson, Tora Teje , Guken Cederborg and Karin Molander, to the films of
DeMille. Added to that, in that there is a connection between the marriage dramas of De Mille and von Stroheim and the early film of Ernst Lubitsch, author Kenneth Macgowan having written that "in a wittier way" than the earlie two directors, Lubitsch had, "contributed to the delinquency of the screen", in particular with the silent film The Marriage Circle, in regard to the influence Mauritz
Stiller
may have had, Birgitta Steene writes, "They have often
reminded foriegn critics of the comedies of Ernst Lubitsch, but actually
the elegant eroticism characteristic of both Lubitsch and Bergman finds
its source in the works of the Swedish motion picture director Mauritz
Stiller." The film was photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. An emailed newsletter from Kino video during April of 2006 announced the release in the United States of Erotikon on DVD; the film is introduced by author Peter Cowie.


Mauritz
Stiller
is particularly noted for having directed Sjöström in two
comedies for AB Svenska Biograteatern, Wanted A Film Actress,Thomas Graal's basta film,
1917), with Karin Molander, and Marriage ala mode (Thomas
Graal's first child
, Thomas Graal's basta barn, 1918). Rune
Carlsten and Henrik Jaenzon both appeared on screen during Thomas
Graal's Best Film
. Molander continued as director and writer of
Thomas Graal's Ward (Thomas Graal's mindling, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Greta
Garbo had seen the film Erotikon before her having met Stiller.
Erotic comedy was later explored by the Finnish director Teuvo Tulio in
his film You Want Me Like This (Sellaisena kuin sina minut
balusit
, 1944).


Victor Sjostrom-The Phantom CarriageWhen asked about
Victor
Sjöström
, Ingmar Bergman had told Torsten Manns, "His films meant a
tremendous lot to me, particularly The Phantom Carriage (The
Phantom Chariot
,Korkarlen, 1920, also listed as 1921) and
Ingeborg Holm. The former, adapted from a novel by Selma Lagerlöf,
directed by Victor Sjöström from his screenplay, has often been compared
to the opening symbolic sequence to Bergman's Wild
Strawberries
. Bergman has written that
while filming that it seemed to him that it soon became 'Victor's film',
the film belonging more to the actor than the director, and yet, after
Wild Strawberries (Simultronstallet, 1957) Bergman would
begin to write films in which "dialouge and characterizations would take
precedence over scenery and locations." (Cowie). In part, what may account
for Bergman's feeling that the film had become more of a contribution that
Sjöström had made rather than one of his own is the structure of the
film's narrative, its use of a protagonist as narrative address-during an
interview with Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns and Jonas Sima, Bergman had
said, "Many of my films are about journeys, about people going from one
place to another." Sima had noted shortly before that Wild
Strawberries
centers around the character portrayed by Victor Sjöström
and "his relation to himself". Birgitta Steene writes , "The aim of both
The Phantom Carriage and Wild Strawberries is moral: they
tell of a change of character in an egotistical old man and his
integration into a community of love." Victor Sjöström in fact was not in
the best of health during the filming of Wild Strawberries and
reportedly had difficulty remembering lines of dialouge. There were scenes
that had been filmed on indoor sets using backscreen projection to
accomodate Sjöström.


Sjöström stars in both films. Photographed by Jaenzon, the film also
stars Hilda Borgström, Mona Geifer-Falkner, Tore Svennberg. Signe Wirff and Helga Brofeldt also star in the film
in what would be their first appearances on the silver screen. Einar
Lauritzen wrote, "The double exposures in the graveyard scenes and in the
scenes with the phantom chariot are beautifully executed, and, as always
in Julius Jaenzon's photography, the interplay of light and shadow is
superb." Quoted by the director of the Pordenone Film Festival, Peter
Cowie has noted that during the scene, "Occasionally, as many as four
images are superimposed on a single frame." The Phantom
Carriage
(Korkarlen) was filmed by Arne Mattsson in 1958.


Danish film director Lau Lauritzen directed five films in Sweden in
1920, En hustru till lans with Karen Winther, Flickorna i
Are
, with Kate Fabian, Karleck och bjornjakt with Si Holmquist,
Vil de vare min kone-i morgen and Damernes ven. Although The President (Praesidenten, 1919), starring Elith Pio and Olga Raphael-Linden, is not distinguished as being remarkable, it is one of the only two that Carl Th Dreyer made in Denmark before his going abroad, his later establishing a small body of work that would be indelible upon filmmaking. His films are disparate stylisticly, differing in their use of technique; Dreyer has been quoted as having remarked upon his having tried to find a style that would have value for only a single film.


In 1920, Greta Garbo would begin watching the silent films of Clara Kimball
Young, Charles Ray and Thomas Meighan- it was also that year that she
would espy the actor, later to become director, Sigurd Wallen at a
performance of his, there also being an account of her having had a brief
conversation with the actor Joseph Fischer. Appearing on the screen in Sweden in 1920 in the film Bodakungen (Gustaf Molander) was Franz Envall, who Greta Garbo mentioned in a 1928 Photoplay magazine interview with Ruth Biery. "Then I met an actor...It was Franz Envall. He is dead now, but he has a daughter in stage in Sweden. He asked if they would let me try to get into the Dramatic School of the Royal Theater in Stockholm."


The films of Clara Kimball Young were the springboard for scriptwriter Lenore Coffee, whose first films as a screenwriter, The Better Wife (William Earle, 1919,five reels) and The Forbidden Woman (1920) had starred the actress.


Finnish silent film director Erkki Karu directed two films for Suomen Biografi in 1920, both photographed by Finnish cinematographer Frans Ekebom, War Profiteer Kaikus Disrupted Summer Vacation (Sotagubishi Kaiun Hairitty Kesaloma) and Student Pollovaara's Betrothal (Ylioppilas Pollovaaran kihlaus).



One of the most beautiful silent films ever made by Mary Pickford, Pollyanna (Paul Powell, six reels) was filmed in 1920. The film
also stars William Courtleigh. Pickford also that year made the film
Suds (five reels) under the direction of John Francis Dillon. The
film also stars William Austin. Mary Pickford was portrayed by Swedish
actress Agneta Ekmanner in the 1974 teleplay Bakom masker, directed
by Lars Amble and based on the play by Hjalmer Bergman. In a film that would almost seem a yardstick for many of the films that would comprise the rest of the silent film era, Douglas Fairbanks starred under the direction of Fred Niblo in the film The Mark of Zorro.





Clarence Brown directed his first film, The Great Redeemer (five
reels) with Marjorie Daw and John Gilbert in 1920. Lowell Shermann, who
appeared with Greta Garbo in the film The Divine Woman began in
film in 1920 with Yes and No (Roy W. Neill, six reels) with Norma Talmadge and in 1921 with The Gilded
Lady
, (seven reels) Molly O (eight reels) and What No man Knows (six reels). Covergirl for Photoplay Magazine, Norma Talmadge was also that year directed by Roy W. Neill in the film A Woman Gives (six reels). A Daughter of Two World (James Young, six reels) and She Loves and Lies were also to star Norma Talmadge that year. Norma Shearer
appeared in films in the year 1920, among them being The Sign On the
Door
( Herbert Brenon, seven reels), The Flapper (Alan
Crosland, five reels), The Restless Sex (six reels) written by
Frances Marion and The Stealers (seven reels, William Christy
Cabanne).


That year D. W. Griffith directed Lillian Gish in The Greatest
Question
(six reels), photographed by G. W. Bitzer. Griffith also
directed the films The Idol Dancer (1920, seven reels), with
Richard Barthelmess, Clarine Seymour and Kate Bruce and The Love
Flower
(1920, seven reels), with silent film actress Carol Dempster. The following year Dempster again starred under the direction of D. W. Griffith in the silent film Dream Street. In 1920 Dorothy Gish
not only starred in the film Little Miss Rebellion (five reels),
directed by George Fawcett, but also had begun filming with the director
F. Richard Jones, under whose direction she starred in Flying Pat
(1920, five reels), with Kate Bruce, The Ghost in the Garret (1921)
and The County Flapper (1922) with Glenn Hunter and Mildred Marsh.
Lillian Gish writes about Garbo's later asking her to introduce her to
Griffith, which she did, and of Garbo's asking her how she should dress.
Garbo had said to her, "It would be nice to have dinner at your
house."


Victor Sjöström wrote and directed The Monastery of Sendomir
(The Secret of the Monastery, Kloster i Sendomir, 1920) with
Tora Teje, Richard Lund and Tore Svennberg. Photgraphed by Henrik Jaenzon, the film was adapted by Sjöström from a novel by Franz Grillparzev.
A screening of the film was offerred by the Norwegian Film Institute on
July 17,2005 in the Cinemateket. During 1920 Sjöström also directed
Master Samuel (A Dangerous Pledge,Masterman), in
which he starred with Greta Almroth and Concordia Selander. Photographed by Julius Jaenzon, it was
scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, as was the 1921 film Fru Mariannes
friare
, directed by Gunnar Klintberg and starring Astri Torsell, Inga Ellis and Aslaug Lie-Eide, the cinematographer to the film having been Robert Olsson. Gunnar Klintberg would continue by directing Astri Torsell in two other Swedish Silent films, The Love Child, with Julia Hakansson, and Lord Saviles brott. The Fishing Villiage (Chains, Fiskebyn) was filmed in
1920 by Stiller and Henrik Jaenzon, it starring Lars Hanson. Appearing in the film was Hildur Carlburg, who that year also appearred in the film The Witch Woman (Prastankan), shot in Sweden by Danish film director Carl Dreyer. Sölve
Cederstrand directed his first film, Ett odesdigert inkognito,
starring Tage Alquist and Signe Selid, in 1920. The Swedish director John
W. Brunius
that year wrote and directed both Thora van
Deken
, starring Gosta
Ekman
, Ellen Dall and Edvin Adolphson with Pauline Brunius in the
title role, and Gyurkoviscarna, photographed by Hugo Edlund and
starring Nils Asther, Pauline Brunius and Ragnar Arvedson. Both films were produced by Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm. They were followed by The
Wild Bird
(En vindfagel, 1921), in which he starred with Pauline Brunius, Tore Svennberg, Mona
Geifer-Falkner and Edvin Adolphson, The Mill (Kvarnen, 1921), starring
Helene Olsson and Ellen Dall and photographed by Hugo Edlund, A Fortune
Hunter
(En Lyckoriddarre, 1921 six reels) starring Gösta
Ekman
, Mary Johnson, Hilda Forsslund and Greta Garbo, her appearing
with her sister Alva Gustafsson in a scene that takes place in a tavern.
In 1922 he directed Iron Wills (Harda viljor). Directed for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm in 1920, the first three films by Pauline
Brunius, De lackra skaldjuren, Ombytta
roller
and Trollslanden, were also the first three films in which the actress Frida Winnerstrand was to appear.


Rune Carlsten in 1920 wrote and
directed A Modern Robinson (Robinson i skargarden) with Mary
Johnson. He that year also directed Mary Johnson, with Tora Teje, in the
film Family Traditions (Familjens traditioner), which he
scripted as well. The film was produced by Svensk Filmindustri


Danish silent film director A. W. Sandberg in 1920 wrote and directed two films for the Nordisk Films Kompagni in which the actress Clara Wieth starred, House of Fatal Love (Kaerlighedsvalen) and A Romance of Riches (Stodderprinsessen), in which she starred with Gunnar Tolnaes. Sandberg also that year directed the film Adrift (Det dode Skib), with Valedmar Psilander, Stella Lind and Else Frolich.


Ivan Hedqvist in 1921 directed the film Pilgrimage to Kevlar
(Vallfarten till Kevlaar) starring Jessie Wessel, which he followed
in 1924 with Life in the Country (Livet pa landet), photographed by Julius Jaenzon.


In 1921, Pauline Brunius wrote and directed the film Lev livet
leende
and directed the film Ryggskott. Let No Man Put
Asunder
(Hogre andamal, 1921) starred Edith Erastoff, her
director having been Rune Carlsten.
Klaus Albrecht that year directed Lili Ziedner in the film The Bimbini Circus (Cirkus
Bimbini
). Stiller in 1921 directed The Emigrants (De
landsflyktiga
) starring Lars Hanson and Ivan Hedqvist and
Johan, starring Jenny Hasselqvist, a
film co-written with Stiller by Molander from a novel by Juhani Ahos and
photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. It is the first film in which Tyra Ryman would appear. Tyra Ryman was introduced to her later costar Greta Garbo in 1922 at PUB by Eric Petschler, who directed both in Luffar-Peter. Writing about another film directed that year by Mauritz Stiller, Tom Milne sees the film Johan as
having contributed to the technique and to the look of the film The
Bride of Gromdal
directed by Carl Th. Dreyer.


Carl Th. Dreyer in 1921 directed the silent film Leaves from Satan's Book (Blade af Satans Bog).


In the United States during 1921, Mary Pickford continued acting with the silent film Little Lord Fauntleroy.


In 1922, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed the films Love's
Crucible
(Vem domer), with Gosta Ekman and Jenny Hasselqvist and
Ivan Hedqvist, The Hellship, from a screenplay written by Hjalmar
Bergman and starring Matheson Long and Jenny Hasselqvist and Julia Cederblad in the first film in which she was to appear, both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon. That year Sjöström also directed The
Surrounded House
(Det omringade huset), starring Wanda
Rothgardt and Hilda Forsslund. The Swedish director Gustaf Edgren contributed
The Young Lady of Bjorneborg (Froken pa Bjorneborg, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman and
starring Rosa Tilman, Elsa Wallin and the actress Edit Ernholm in her first film. Sigurd Wallen that year directed his first film Andessonskans Kalle with
Stina Berg and Anna Diedrich, his following it with Andessonskans Kalle
pa nya upptag
with Edvin Adolphson, the debut film of Mona Martenson.
John W. Brunius that year directed A Scarlet Angel (Eyes of
Love
, Karlekens ogon), photographed by Hugo Edlund. That year Ragnar Ring wrote and directed
En Vikingafilm, with Harald Wehlnor and Sigrid Ahlstrom.


Karin
Boye, the Swedish poet began publishing in 1922 with the volume
Clouds. She continued in 1924 with Hidden Lands and in 1927 with The
Hearths. Swedish poet Birger Sjoberg in 1922 published Frida's
Songs.


Writing about the 1922 Finnish Silent Film, Tytta Soila notes, "Perhaps one might say that the fortune of Suomi-Filmi, and thus the future of Finnish cinema, was established by portraying the lives of two strong female characters: Anna-Liisa and Hannah. Subsequently, many Finnish films were to have a strong female character at the center of the action."



Director Victor Sjöström left for Hollywood in 1922, upon the completion of the filming of The Hellship. In 1922 Rudolf
Valentino was in an early role, starring with Gloria Swanson in the
film Beyond the Rocks (Sam Wood); the only existant copy of the
film was found recently and the film, readying for distribution in United
States during 2005, had its premiere in Amsterdam at the Filmuseum's
Biennale festival. In her autobiography Swanson on
Swanson, the actress gives an account of making of the film. "Everyone wanted Beyond the Rocks to be every luscious thing Hollywood could serve up in a single picture: the sultry glamour of Gloria Swanson, the steamy Latin magic of Rudolph Valentino, a rapturous love story byb Elinor Glyn, and the tango as it was meant to be danced, by the master himself. In the story I played a poor but aristocratic English girl who is married off to an elderly millionaire, only to meet the lover of her life on her honeymoon." After describing the fun she had off the set with Valentino, with whom she often had dinner, she concludes, "Several months later he married Natacha Rambova, and from then on he and I saw each other seldom." Valentino had in 1921 starred in the silent film Camille (Ray C. Smallwood, six reels) with Patsy Ruth Miller and Consuelo Flowerton.

It is only with sincere appreciation for for the Silent Film series aired on Turner Classic Movies on Sunday Nights that the best of luck should be wished to Robert Osborne and Charles Tabesh at their appearing at the screening of silent films- Robert Osborne was present at the San Francisco Silent Film Festival for the July 14, 2007 showing of Camille. The film was included in the Greta Garbo Signature released in 2005 near to the 100th birthday of the actress Greta Garbo along with a section entitled TCM archive: Greta Garbo Silents.




D.W. Griffith in 1922 directed Carol Dempster in One Exciting Night (eleven reels). By then a producer for United Artists, Griffith followed in 1923 by directing Carol Dempster in the film The White Rose with Mae Marsh (twelve reels). Sidney
Franklin in 1922 directed the film The
Primitive Lover
, starring Constance Talmadge. Lon Chaney in 1922 starred in the film Flesh and
Blood
(five reels). Norma Shearer first appeared in a starring role in
1922 in the film The Man Who Paid (five reels), directed by Oscar
Apfel. Rudolf Valentino in 1922 would appear with Wanda Hawley in the film The Young Rajah (Phil Rosen), the screenplay to the film written by June Mathis, who adapted the script from a novel by ames Ames Mitchell. Valentino would also that year appear with Dorothy Dalton in Moran of the Lady Letty (George Melford).


Silent FilmSilent



Filmed in Sweden by Danish silent film director Benjamin Christensen, 1922 saw the
release of the long awaited film Haxan
(Witchcraft Through the Ages). The film, recently included in the films of
Janus Films and in the silent film
from Criterion, in the United States, was photographed by Johan
Ankerstjerne and written by Christensen, who appears in the film with Ella
la Cour, Emmy Schonfeld, Kate Fabian, Elisabeth Christensen, Astrid Holm
and Elith Pio. Notably Alice O Fredricks and Tora Teje also appear in the
film. In a film that to Sweden was to be its Intolerance, Christensen numerously uses the iris in to punctuate the end of a particular scene and the iris out in the subsequent shot to begin the adjacent scene; he goes so far as to use both during the same shot. Raymond Sptossiwoode remarked upon the fade in and fade out, along with the dissolve and wipe, as being something that was to "produce a softening effect, an indeterminate space between successive shots", his delegating it to being "the mark of the termination of an incident or of a defined period of time". German director Paul Wegener, two years earlier than Christensen's film, released a remake
of his film The
Golem
(Der Golem), which he had first filmed in
1915.



Gunnar Hede's Saga (1922, seven reels), directed by Mauritz Stiller, and photographed by Julius Jaenzon,
starring Mary Johnson, Pauline Brunius and Julia Cederblad, is based the novel En Herrgardsaggen by
Selma Lagerlöf. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hede's Saga writes, "Again there was a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificient setting in the northern landscape. It was the first film in which actress Lotten Olsson was to appear.


The King of Boda (Tyranny of Hate, Bodakungen, 1920) was the first film to
bear the name of Gustaf Molander as director. It was also the first film to be photographed by cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. The film stars Egil Eide and
Wanda Rothgardt. Continuing the filming of the novels of Lagerlöf, he
directed Birgit
Sergelius
and Pauline Brunius in Charlotte Lowenskold
(1930). Charlotte Lowenskold is the second in a trilogy of short stories written by Selma Lagerlöf, each of them having the Scandinavian landscape of Varmland as their background. The beginning volume, Lowenskolska Ringen was published in 1925, the third volume, Anna Svard having appeared in 1928. During 1930 Gustaf Molander also directed Frida's Songs (Frida's
visor
), both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon. Victor Sjostrom had starred with Wanda
Rothgart and Gunn Wallgren in the first filming of The Word
(Ordet, 1943) under the direction of Molander, the actor Rune
Lindstrom having written the screenplay.
Victor Sjostrom also acted under Molander's
direction in the films The Fight Goes On (Striden gar Vidare, 1941),in which Sjostrom
appeared with Renee Bjorling and Ann-Margret Bjorlin, it having had been
being the debut of the actress in film, Det Brinner en Eld (1943),
in which Sjöström appeared with Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad and
Kvartetten som Sprangdes (1950). If as though to either to
complement or to counter the use of mise en scene and Victor Sjöström's
use of landscape in early Swedish cinema, Molander is a director of the
interior scene. Tytti Soila writes, "Particularly in the melodramas,
Molander used the composition of the image with the purpose of showing
something essential about the existential situation of the characters. The
pictures are 'tight' and on the verge of being claustrophobic, as props
and other details of the set fill the frame, competing for room with the
characters."


Gustaf Molander's second film Amatorfilmen (1922), starring Mimi
Pollack, was the first film in which the actress Elsa Ebbensen-Thornblad
was to appear.


Brunius in 1923 directed the film The Best of All, following it
with Maid Among Maids (En piga bland pigor, 1924), photographed by Hugo Edlund, and starring
Edvin Adolphson and Margit Manstad. Gustaf Edgren in 1923 wrote and directed the
film People of Narke (Narkingarna) photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Anna Carlsten, Gerda Bjorne and Maja Jerlström in her first appearence on screen, the director following it in 1924 with
The King of Trollebo (Trollebokungen), an adaptation of the 1917 novel scripted by Sölve Cederstrand and photographed by C.A. Söström, the film having starred Ivar
Kalling, Weyeler Hildebrand and Signe Ekloff.


Per Lindberg
directed his first film in 1923, Norrtullsligan written by Hjalmar
Bergman and starring Tora Teje, Egil Eide, Stina Berg, Linnea Hillberg and
Nils Asther, as did William Larsson, who directed Jenny Tschernichin,
Jessie Wessel and Frida Sporrong in the film Halsingar and Karin
Swanström, who directed and starred with Karin Gardtman and Ann Mari
Kjellgren in the film Boman at the Exhibition (Boman pa utstallningen) for Scandias Filmbyra and Svensk Filmindustri. Halsingar was also to be the first of many films photgraphed by Swedish cinematographer Henning Ohlson. Per Lindgren that
year directed a second film scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, Anna Klara and her Brothers (Anna Clara och
hennes broder
), it starring Anna-Britt Ohlsson, Hilda Borgström, Karin
Swanström, Linnea Hillberg, Hilda Borgström and Margit Manstad in what would be her first
appearance on the siler screen. The film was photographed by Ragnar Westfelt. Bror Abelli in 1923 directed his first two
films, including the film Janne Modig.


Ragnar Widestedt in 1923
directed Agda Helin and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson in the film
Housemaids (Hemslavinnor), written by Ragnar-Hylten-Cavallius. Froken Fob
(1923) was directed by Elis Ellis and photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Sven Bardach photographed his first film in 1923, Andersson, Petterson och Lundstrom, under the direction of Carl Barklind. The film stars Vera Schmiterlow and Mimi Pollock, both of whom were aquaintances of Greta Garbo, Inga Tiblad, Gucken Cederborg and Edvin Adolphson. Fredrik Anderson in 1923 directed En
rackarunge
, with Elsa Wallin and Mia Grunder. Gustaf V, King of Sweden
is listed as being in the film. The film was photographed by Swedish cinematographer Sven Bardach.


Although Victor Sjöström had embarked for the United States to film in Hollywood under the name Victor Seatrom, Danish silent film directors Benjamin Christensen and Carl Th. Dreyer, who both had begun as scriptwriters for Nordisk in 1912, would by 1923 have travelled to Germany, as Urban Gad, Asta Nielsen and Stellan Rye had earlier. Christensen would star in Dreyer's 1924 film Mikail (Chained) in addition to directing the film Seine Frau, die Unbekannte (1924) while there. Carl Th. Dreyer would direct the films Love One Another (Die Gezeichneten, 1921) and Once Upon a Time (Der Var engang, 1924) with actress Clara Pontoppidan.


Norwegian film director Tancred Ibsen not only worked in Hollywood on the set design of Victor Sjöström's film Tower of Lies, but also worked on the set design of the film His Hour (1924), directed by King Vidor.


Danish actress Olga d'Org starred in three films for Nordisk Films Kompagni, all of which were directed by A.W. Sandberg, including the 1923 film The Hill Park Mystery (Nedbrudte nerver).


Finnish film director Karl Fager in 1923 brought the film The Old Baron of Rautakyla (Rautakylan Vanha Parooni) to the screen.


John Lindlof in 1924 directed Man of Adventure (Odets man) with Inga Tiblad and Uno
Henning and photographed by Gustav A Gustafson. Sigurd Wallen that year directed Inga Tiblad with Einar Froberg
in Grevarna pa Svanta, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. Theodor
Berthels in 1924, wrote and directed the film People of the Simlanga Valley (Folket i
Simlangsdalen
) with Mathias Taube and Greta Almroth and directed the
film The Girl from Paradise (Flickan fran Paradiset). Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. Ragnar Ring that year directed
Bjorn Mork and Nar millionera rulla. Ivar Kage in 1924
directed Gosta Hillberg and Edvin Adolphson in
the film Where the Lighthouse Flashed (Dar fryen blinkar) for Svensk Ornfilm. Rune Carlsten in 1924 wrote and
directed The Young Nobleman (Unga greven tar flickan och
priset
). Hellwig Rimmen that year directed and photgraphed the film Hogsta vinsten.





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